2008年1月26日

古巴經典 - 低度開發的回憶 Memories of Underdevelopment




在Google Video 發現《低度開發的回憶》(Memories of Underdevelopment,或譯《對發展中的一點回憶》) 的全片。這部非常罕見的古巴隱世經典,筆者只在05年百老匯電影中心某次小影展中看過,而且一看便被深深吸引:夾雜寫實與實驗的風格、充滿自省與詩意的獨白,看似安東尼奧尼在拍關於政治的電影一般。更難得的是它在社會主義的古巴描述個人主義的故事(當然它是"個人"還是"反個人",完全視乎觀眾的觀點)。此片只現存New Yorker版VHS,以及一個古巴版的DVD (正是那個小影展上播的),沒有1或2區DVD。幸好,現在一位有心人將附英文字幕的VHS版上載。畫質雖一般,卻可讓影迷一睹這部隱世經典的盧山真貌。



▼《低度開發的回憶》,或按此以全屏觀看





以下是筆者寫於05年的評介(亦為本人最滿意的影評之一):



= = = = 


Memories of Underdevelopment

低度開發的回憶


文:史丹利五


「沒有變…古巴沒有變…夏灣拿沒有變…一切都沒有變…」


主角Sergio不斷對自己說,即使被共產政權解放了,古巴一切依舊。但事實真的如此嗎?Sergio 的妻子與父母卻有不同的看法。他們看到古巴早已變天,權力由獨裁者轉移到無產者手上,舊日的既得利益階層缺乏安全感。影片的開首,Sergio到機場向妻子與父母辭別。冷眼看著這些其他趕著投奔自由的古巴人登上前往邁亞美的飛機,Sergio的心裡很不是味兒,難免要向他們冷嘲熱諷一番。Sergio選擇留下,不是因為他對未來充滿信心,是因為眼前的古巴,對他來說,與舊日並無分別。


電影《Memories of Underdevelopment(低度開發的回憶) 的背景時維1961年的古巴,舊的獨裁政權被卡斯特羅領導的社會主義武裝力量推翻。現在,古巴不再是美帝的殖民地,而是獨立自主的國家,更要向帝國主義對著幹。1961年,剛發生美國入侵古巴的豬灣事件,兩國的關係非常緊張。古巴的有產階級正因政治局勢不明朗而紛紛離開,Sergio理應是他們的一分子,因為他事實上是一位小資產階級,有房產,以收租度日,可不事生產。他每天的生活就是踱在街上,間中泡泡書店、座談會,裝知識分子,更以"歐洲人"自居,因為他自覺思維與生活習慣均與普通的古巴人不同。1961年的Sergio依然過著解放之前的生活。表面上,他所住的夏灣拿的確一切如舊。但是為了自我證明自己是與別不同,Sergio近來多了一個習慣:在陽台上用望遠鏡觀察周圍。他一直在細看,他看見這座城市的輪廓沒有變,只是少了昔日的熱鬧


 

 

夏灣拿,從前有「加勒比海的巴黎」的美譽,紙醉金迷,夜夜笙歌,是有錢人的天堂,歐美富豪的銷金窩。此時此刻,這些都蕩然無存了。玩樂的氣氛換上無產者的革命激情。但不要緊,這些都不是Sergio所留戀的。那麼,Sergio為何還要留在古巴?


可能是一種惰性,或是自尊心在作崇,要證明自己的抉擇沒有錯。他漸漸離群索居,只愛獨自困在家中,他的生活除了用望遠鏡觀看外界,就是在回憶過去,或同酒肉朋友駕著汽車去兜風。但與朋友談起美國的奢侈生活時,Sergio卻心不在焉地想著第三世界的貧窮問題。這可能是要證明自己雖是小資產階級的一員,卻與腐敗頹廢的一群劃清界線,他亦不稀罕這種朋友。後來,這位朋友亦移民美國去了。


妻子遠走他方,Sergio又如婚前般風流性起。他對著年輕貌美的女傭工發綺夢。幻想擁抱著她、親吻她,與她在河中鴛鴦戲水。他又在街上與某位發明星夢的女孩子搭訕,隨後旋即搭上。但Sergio慢慢發現這位女子甚為庸俗膚淺,與他完全不相配。他要放棄這段感情,想不到這位女子竟發難,反要誣告他誘姦罪。 Sergio的情愛經歷曲折而豐富,但讓他念念不忘的還是年輕時與一位德國女孩共墮愛河。他偶然回到她讀書的學校,昔日相親相愛的畫面頓時浮現。時光荏苒,物是人非,縱然古巴起了翻天覆地的變化,初戀就如解放前的古巴的光景。在Sergio的心裡,最好的時光依然歷歷在目,並沒有因時間而流逝。

 

 

 

與另一部同年代的著名古巴電影《我是古巴》(I am Cuba) 不同,《低度開發的回憶》是一部由古巴本土人拍攝的的電影。可是,導演Tomás Gutiérrez Alea無意拍攝一套近似《我是古巴》的"樣板"式電影,反而使用非常個人化的角度、沉鬱的筆觸,去描繪主角Sergio面對動蕩不安的局勢的心理狀況。重大的政治事件只以第三身的新聞片形式輕輕帶過,故事主線幾乎不觸及,更不深入討論這些政治議題。Sergio喃喃自語式的旁白,交代的是對過去的回憶。他對目前的政治局勢態度暖昧,一方面不會投入反美革命,另方面又不是一個反共者。他起初因為自己是一個局外人而竊竊自喜,漸漸這種的岸崖自高的心態卻讓他產生孤僻與自卑感。片中一個關於古巴革命前途的研討會上,一位美國人向與會學者質疑古巴革命的神聖地位:既然這場革命如此偉大,為何我們還坐在這裡侃侃而談?世界的無產者為何不跟著我們起革命?Sergio可能認同這位美國人的說法,但他自己在這場革命中又扮演什麼樣的一個角色?這份空虛感一直纏繞著他,能填補這份空虛的只有對肉慾的追求,以及對低度開發的古巴的思憶


如果Sergio這個人物的確存在,兩年後的1964年,他看過《我是古巴》這部黨的"樣板"電影後,又會有什麼感覺?筆者幻想他大概會讚賞片中流麗而詩化的影象。但崇尚個人主義的他,肯定會對片中的政治正確性與角色的面譜化施以無情的嘲諷。正如米蘭昆德拉在小說《生命中不能承受的輕》裡經 Sabina之口,說出他所鄙視的社會主義:肉麻、庸俗、強調集體,對個人主體的抹殺。


但請留意,《低度開發的回憶》拍攝於1968年。這一年,世界正處於風雨飄搖:法國刮起五月風暴,中國的紅衛兵文攻武衛,歐洲與南美各地爆發學生運動,英國有大規模的反戰示威,Rolling Stones樂隊也作了一首《Street Fighting Man》歌頌全世界的街頭戰士。這股左翼力量在蔓延,古巴導演Alea在這一年拍攝的《低度開發的回憶》,卻是反其道而行。在古巴這個革命聖地去反省共產思想的理想主義與集體主義,這不能不說是一種吊詭。其實,我們也將之當作是歷史的諷刺,因為左派思想在往後的數十年已消散得無影無縱。蘇聯解體、中國開放,美國式資本主義無遠弗屆,唯獨古巴的社會主義體制至今未變,甚至卡斯特羅仍然是古巴的領袖。

 

低度開發的回憶》難得之處,還有其電影語言上的超前性。筆者猜想導演Alea大概是影癡一名,因片中處處表現出當代歐洲電影的新潮風格。例如定格、蒙太奇小把戲與複雜的聲效設計,這都是法國新浪潮電影裡似曾相識的手法。主角的幻想與回憶時的插敘,亦似《八部半》的同類畫面 (戴眼鏡的Sergio也有幾分像馬斯杜楚尼哩!)。又例如機動性很強的手提機攝影,亦是高達慣用的實驗技倆。主角Sergio在房間內漫無目的地遊蕩,攝影機一直緊隨著。此刻,觀眾不是一個旁觀者,而是從主角的視點(POV)觀察世界,與主角分享內心孤獨的感覺。


低》片最為實驗性的技法,是那些超級大特寫的鏡頭。主角Sergio與女朋友正在床第間嬉戲,鏡頭跟隨著女子的面龐,使她的面充斥著整個畫面,似是表現了Sergio對這位女子的強烈慾望;在討論古巴革命的學術會議後,Sergio獨自走在街上,沉思著自己的身分。鏡頭由極遠慢慢向他的面上zoom 至極近,致畫面只有糢糊一片。彷佛是角色的面還未能完全表達內心的迷惘,所以導演要穿透他的表面,深入內裡看過明白。


 

 

主角Sergio亦似是安東尼奧尼電影中的孤獨人物。Sergio走在街上,心中說服著自己與街上普通的古巴人不同,表現出一份傲氣。安東尼奧尼的《 夜》(La Notte) 中的珍摩露,以及《蝕》的Monica Vitti,也喜歡獨個兒在街上閒逛,同時面上帶著無以名狀的失落感。《低》片與安東尼奧尼電影,同樣探討現代社會中人際間的疏離感,與人身處城市的徬徨無助。而不同的是,意大利的人與城市是富裕而安穩的,古巴的則是人心惶惶、時局動蕩。


低》片又可被視為《野草霉》古巴"革命版",主角在緬懷過去的同時,同時為現在帶來一些啟示;詩意化的旁白,與主角被昔日的幽靈纏繞著而難以自拔,又似是《廣島之戀》裡的法國女子,腦海經常浮現年青時刻骨銘心的苦戀;導演Alea (或是編劇/原著作者Edmundo Desnoes) 對主角的心理有如此深刻而個人化的描寫,就如作者本人的自傳一般。就在故事的同年,即1962年,貝托魯奇正拍攝第二部作品《革命前夕》(Before the Revolution),兩片同樣有著讓觀者為之嘆謂的感性自述。但兩者不同之處,是貝托魯奇所寄負的是處於革命之前的激昂,以及一段沒有結果的愛情。 Sergio雖已身處於革命之中,卻是不斷地去抗拒、逃避。在情路上一次又一次的被欺騙、背叛。


然而,《低度開發的回憶》與《革命前夕》的調子同樣傷感。兩片的配樂成功地營造出一種愁雲慘霧的氣氛。可是, Sergio能夠獨善其身於古巴革命中,理應值得慶幸,又有什麼值得悲?悲的是現實從沒有因Sergio而變?還是悲Sergio自願困在回憶之中?結局或許解釋了一切:古巴飛彈危機如箭在弦,美國隨時揮軍入侵,古巴全體軍民嚴陣以待。但在這個危急關頭,Sergio依舊在房間中無聊地度過。他用望遠鏡窺看夏灣拿的風光,大炮被搬上屋頂作佈防,軍車坦克隆隆而過……古巴的一切都在變,但Sergio所眷戀的,仍然是低度開發的古巴。



(刊登日期:2005年712) 


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